Geomagnetic stratigraphic dating

These explanations remained popular until the 1950s and stimulated belief in the ancient submerged continent of Atlantis. Taylor postulated that the arcuate (bow-shaped) mountain belts of Asia and Europe resulted from the creep of the continents toward the Equator.

Wegener described the drift of continents as a flight from the poles due to Earth’s equatorial bulge.

About this time, Gondwana collided with Laurentia (the precursor to the North American continent), which was one of the major collisional events that produced Pangea.

Both ice ages resulted in glacial deposits—in the southern Sahara during the Silurian Period (443.8 million to 419.2 million years ago) and in southern South America, South Africa, India, and Australia from 382.7 million to 251.9 million years ago, spanning the latter part of the Devonian, as well as the Carboniferous and the Permian.

According to this hypothesis, portions of a single enormous southern continent—designated Gondwana (or Gondwanaland)—foundered to create the Atlantic and Indian oceans.

Such sunken lands, along with vanished land bridges, were frequently invoked in the late 1800s to explain sediment sources apparently present in the ocean and to account for floral and faunal connections between continents.

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